Author: jmin1130

Bryant Park, NY

In 1884, the existing park in the area was renamed to Bryant Park, in honor of abolitionist William Cullen Bryant. With its location being in Midtown Manhattan, several transit lines and infrastructure projects were built around it, such as the city’s first subway line and the Catskill Aqueduct. Throughout the 1900s, the area saw major renovations and attempts at countering neglect from the city. Many public events took place here, such as an aircraft demonstration during World War II and outdoor summer concerts. Its current design was officially finished in 1992. It contains the main branch of the New York Public Library and a large lawn that doubles as an ice rink in the winter. Its main use is a passive recreation space.

Arena di Verona, Italy

The Verona Arena was built in the first century. Its usage today consists solely of hosting large-scale operas, however, its speculated that early in its life it was also used for gladiator fights, sports, and hunting games (as well as persecution of early Christians). It has slowly evolved to become a cultural center of the city. The facade was originally built with white and pink limestone, but an earthquake destroyed this outer ring, leaving behind the current facade/ring.

Cremona, Italy

The population of Cremona would agree that the cathedral square is their center. The most important buildings to the city are placed there, like the Romanesque cathedral, the Torrazzo, the octagonal baptistry, the city hall, and the Loggia dei Militi. The city is most famous for its musical history, being the birthplace of Claudio Monteverdi and Antonio Stradivari. It contains The School of Violin and Viola Makers and a museum of antique stringed instruments. Along with its musical influence, Cremona is also a center of agricultural and dairy produce, hosting a market weekly. It manufactures agricultural machinery, silk textiles, bricks, and pianos.

Manhattan, New York City

Manhattan’s grid pattern was a response to the population growth between 1790 and 1810. Public health issues increased as a result so some action was needed. It focused on the downtown areas because most of the city’s population lived there. Its main goal was to be structured but flexible. It took about 60 years for the grid to be built up to 155th street, during which many factors (administration, aesthetic values, interest groups) changed and could have undermined the plan. It caused a debate among New Yorkers (property owners in particular). More than 720 buildings were demolished or moved, which caused the city to lose most of its original architectural history.

Hell’s Kitchen, Manhattan (New York)

Hell’s Kitchen is located on the west side of Manhattan. In the early 20th century, the area was run by local Irish gangs, populating the area with working-class Irish Americans. In the late 20th century, widespread gentrification changed the demographics of the neighborhood and ended the gang control. Currently, the area is home to a large portion of New York’s entertainment industry (i.e. CBS, The Daily Show, etc.). The streets are lined with trees, though the neighborhood does not have many parks. Part of the neighborhood is included in the Hudson Yards Master Plan, another instance of gentrification, which introduced more residential skyscrapers and renovations existing buildings and public transport sites.

Vällingby, Stockholm (Sweden)

The plan of this city was to decentralize the population of Stockholm and solve the housing shortage. Set on agricultural land, the design was inspired by the Radburn idea and the New Towns of the United Kingdom. In its early stages of construction, small-scale suburbs had been realized in the style of Garden cities and low block apartments. High-rise buildings were placed near the metro stations, and smaller houses and green areas radiate further out.

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