Manila, Philippines

The plan to transform and modernize Manila, Philippine’s capital city, was composed by Daniel Burnham and Peirce Anderson. They created a capital that focused on national culture and sentiment by geometrically arranging the city around civic centers, tree-lined boulevards, and landscaped spaces. Burnham made a strong effort to keep Manila’s culture in the forefront by leaving historic remains intact. Burnham and Pierce imported neoclassical urbanism to create monumental design projects and forge a new city image to encourage a sense of patriotism. They emphasized how spatial organization, aesthetics, environmental behaviorism and civic politics were entwined within modern American dominance and grand urban design. Manila is a great example of monumentalism that does not entirely sublimate the existing culture rather signifies strength and collectivism.

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